Anti-VM techniques — Hyper-V/VPC registry key + WMI queries on Win32_BIOS, Win32_ComputerSystem, MSAcpi_ThermalZoneTemperature, more MAC for Xen, Parallels

Introduction

al-khaser is a PoC «malware» application with good intentions that aims to stress your anti-malware system. It performs a bunch of common malware tricks with the goal of seeing if you stay under the radar.

Logo

Download

You can download the latest release here.

Possible uses

  • You are making an anti-debug plugin and you want to check its effectiveness.
  • You want to ensure that your sandbox solution is hidden enough.
  • Or you want to ensure that your malware analysis environment is well hidden.

Please, if you encounter any of the anti-analysis tricks which you have seen in a malware, don’t hesitate to contribute.

Features

Anti-debugging attacks

  • IsDebuggerPresent
  • CheckRemoteDebuggerPresent
  • Process Environement Block (BeingDebugged)
  • Process Environement Block (NtGlobalFlag)
  • ProcessHeap (Flags)
  • ProcessHeap (ForceFlags)
  • NtQueryInformationProcess (ProcessDebugPort)
  • NtQueryInformationProcess (ProcessDebugFlags)
  • NtQueryInformationProcess (ProcessDebugObject)
  • NtSetInformationThread (HideThreadFromDebugger)
  • NtQueryObject (ObjectTypeInformation)
  • NtQueryObject (ObjectAllTypesInformation)
  • CloseHanlde (NtClose) Invalide Handle
  • SetHandleInformation (Protected Handle)
  • UnhandledExceptionFilter
  • OutputDebugString (GetLastError())
  • Hardware Breakpoints (SEH / GetThreadContext)
  • Software Breakpoints (INT3 / 0xCC)
  • Memory Breakpoints (PAGE_GUARD)
  • Interrupt 0x2d
  • Interrupt 1
  • Parent Process (Explorer.exe)
  • SeDebugPrivilege (Csrss.exe)
  • NtYieldExecution / SwitchToThread
  • TLS callbacks
  • Process jobs
  • Memory write watching

Anti-Dumping

  • Erase PE header from memory
  • SizeOfImage

Timing Attacks [Anti-Sandbox]

  • RDTSC (with CPUID to force a VM Exit)
  • RDTSC (Locky version with GetProcessHeap & CloseHandle)
  • Sleep -> SleepEx -> NtDelayExecution
  • Sleep (in a loop a small delay)
  • Sleep and check if time was accelerated (GetTickCount)
  • SetTimer (Standard Windows Timers)
  • timeSetEvent (Multimedia Timers)
  • WaitForSingleObject -> WaitForSingleObjectEx -> NtWaitForSingleObject
  • WaitForMultipleObjects -> WaitForMultipleObjectsEx -> NtWaitForMultipleObjects (todo)
  • IcmpSendEcho (CCleaner Malware)
  • CreateWaitableTimer (todo)
  • CreateTimerQueueTimer (todo)
  • Big crypto loops (todo)

Human Interaction / Generic [Anti-Sandbox]

  • Mouse movement
  • Total Physical memory (GlobalMemoryStatusEx)
  • Disk size using DeviceIoControl (IOCTL_DISK_GET_LENGTH_INFO)
  • Disk size using GetDiskFreeSpaceEx (TotalNumberOfBytes)
  • Mouse (Single click / Double click) (todo)
  • DialogBox (todo)
  • Scrolling (todo)
  • Execution after reboot (todo)
  • Count of processors (Win32/Tinba — Win32/Dyre)
  • Sandbox known product IDs (todo)
  • Color of background pixel (todo)
  • Keyboard layout (Win32/Banload) (todo)

Anti-Virtualization / Full-System Emulation

  • Registry key value artifacts
    • HARDWARE\DEVICEMAP\Scsi\Scsi Port 0\Scsi Bus 0\Target Id 0\Logical Unit Id 0 (Identifier) (VBOX)
    • HARDWARE\DEVICEMAP\Scsi\Scsi Port 0\Scsi Bus 0\Target Id 0\Logical Unit Id 0 (Identifier) (QEMU)
    • HARDWARE\Description\System (SystemBiosVersion) (VBOX)
    • HARDWARE\Description\System (SystemBiosVersion) (QEMU)
    • HARDWARE\Description\System (VideoBiosVersion) (VIRTUALBOX)
    • HARDWARE\Description\System (SystemBiosDate) (06/23/99)
    • HARDWARE\DEVICEMAP\Scsi\Scsi Port 0\Scsi Bus 0\Target Id 0\Logical Unit Id 0 (Identifier) (VMWARE)
    • HARDWARE\DEVICEMAP\Scsi\Scsi Port 1\Scsi Bus 0\Target Id 0\Logical Unit Id 0 (Identifier) (VMWARE)
    • HARDWARE\DEVICEMAP\Scsi\Scsi Port 2\Scsi Bus 0\Target Id 0\Logical Unit Id 0 (Identifier) (VMWARE)
    • SYSTEM\ControlSet001\Control\SystemInformation (SystemManufacturer) (VMWARE)
    • SYSTEM\ControlSet001\Control\SystemInformation (SystemProductName) (VMWARE)
  • Registry Keys artifacts
    • HARDWARE\ACPI\DSDT\VBOX__ (VBOX)
    • HARDWARE\ACPI\FADT\VBOX__ (VBOX)
    • HARDWARE\ACPI\RSDT\VBOX__ (VBOX)
    • SOFTWARE\Oracle\VirtualBox Guest Additions (VBOX)
    • SYSTEM\ControlSet001\Services\VBoxGuest (VBOX)
    • SYSTEM\ControlSet001\Services\VBoxMouse (VBOX)
    • SYSTEM\ControlSet001\Services\VBoxService (VBOX)
    • SYSTEM\ControlSet001\Services\VBoxSF (VBOX)
    • SYSTEM\ControlSet001\Services\VBoxVideo (VBOX)
    • SOFTWARE\VMware, Inc.\VMware Tools (VMWARE)
    • SOFTWARE\Wine (WINE)
    • SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Virtual Machine\Guest\Parameters (HYPER-V)
  • File system artifacts
    • «system32\drivers\VBoxMouse.sys»
    • «system32\drivers\VBoxGuest.sys»
    • «system32\drivers\VBoxSF.sys»
    • «system32\drivers\VBoxVideo.sys»
    • «system32\vboxdisp.dll»
    • «system32\vboxhook.dll»
    • «system32\vboxmrxnp.dll»
    • «system32\vboxogl.dll»
    • «system32\vboxoglarrayspu.dll»
    • «system32\vboxoglcrutil.dll»
    • «system32\vboxoglerrorspu.dll»
    • «system32\vboxoglfeedbackspu.dll»
    • «system32\vboxoglpackspu.dll»
    • «system32\vboxoglpassthroughspu.dll»
    • «system32\vboxservice.exe»
    • «system32\vboxtray.exe»
    • «system32\VBoxControl.exe»
    • «system32\drivers\vmmouse.sys»
    • «system32\drivers\vmhgfs.sys»
    • «system32\drivers\vm3dmp.sys»
    • «system32\drivers\vmci.sys»
    • «system32\drivers\vmhgfs.sys»
    • «system32\drivers\vmmemctl.sys»
    • «system32\drivers\vmmouse.sys»
    • «system32\drivers\vmrawdsk.sys»
    • «system32\drivers\vmusbmouse.sys»
  • Directories artifacts
    • «%PROGRAMFILES%\oracle\virtualbox guest additions\»
    • «%PROGRAMFILES%\VMWare\»
  • Memory artifacts
    • Interupt Descriptor Table (IDT) location
    • Local Descriptor Table (LDT) location
    • Global Descriptor Table (GDT) location
    • Task state segment trick with STR
  • MAC Address
    • «\x08\x00\x27» (VBOX)
    • «\x00\x05\x69» (VMWARE)
    • «\x00\x0C\x29» (VMWARE)
    • «\x00\x1C\x14» (VMWARE)
    • «\x00\x50\x56» (VMWARE)
    • «\x00\x1C\x42» (Parallels)
    • «\x00\x16\x3E» (Xen)
  • Virtual devices
    • «\\.\VBoxMiniRdrDN»
    • «\\.\VBoxGuest»
    • «\\.\pipe\VBoxMiniRdDN»
    • «\\.\VBoxTrayIPC»
    • «\\.\pipe\VBoxTrayIPC»)
    • «\\.\HGFS»
    • «\\.\vmci»
  • Hardware Device information
    • SetupAPI SetupDiEnumDeviceInfo (GUID_DEVCLASS_DISKDRIVE)
      • QEMU
      • VMWare
      • VBOX
      • VIRTUAL HD
  • System Firmware Tables
    • SMBIOS string checks (VirtualBox)
    • SMBIOS string checks (VMWare)
    • SMBIOS string checks (Qemu)
    • ACPI string checks (VirtualBox)
    • ACPI string checks (VMWare)
    • ACPI string checks (Qemu)
  • Driver Services
    • VirtualBox
    • VMWare
  • Adapter name
    • VMWare
  • Windows Class
    • VBoxTrayToolWndClass
    • VBoxTrayToolWnd
  • Network shares
    • VirtualBox Shared Folders
  • Processes
    • vboxservice.exe (VBOX)
    • vboxtray.exe (VBOX)
    • vmtoolsd.exe(VMWARE)
    • vmwaretray.exe(VMWARE)
    • vmwareuser(VMWARE)
    • VGAuthService.exe (VMWARE)
    • vmacthlp.exe (VMWARE)
    • vmsrvc.exe(VirtualPC)
    • vmusrvc.exe(VirtualPC)
    • prl_cc.exe(Parallels)
    • prl_tools.exe(Parallels)
    • xenservice.exe(Citrix Xen)
    • qemu-ga.exe (QEMU)
  • WMI
    • SELECT * FROM Win32_Bios (SerialNumber) (GENERIC)
    • SELECT * FROM Win32_PnPEntity (DeviceId) (VBOX)
    • SELECT * FROM Win32_NetworkAdapterConfiguration (MACAddress) (VBOX)
    • SELECT * FROM Win32_NTEventlogFile (VBOX)
    • SELECT * FROM Win32_Processor (NumberOfCores) (GENERIC)
    • SELECT * FROM Win32_LogicalDisk (Size) (GENERIC)
    • SELECT * FROM Win32_Computer (Model and Manufacturer) (GENERIC)
    • SELECT * FROM MSAcpi_ThermalZoneTemperature CurrentTemperature) (GENERIC)
  • DLL Exports and Loaded DLLs
    • avghookx.dll (AVG)
    • avghooka.dll (AVG)
    • snxhk.dll (Avast)
    • kernel32.dll!wine_get_unix_file_nameWine (Wine)
    • sbiedll.dll (Sandboxie)
    • dbghelp.dll (MS debugging support routines)
    • api_log.dll (iDefense Labs)
    • dir_watch.dll (iDefense Labs)
    • pstorec.dll (SunBelt Sandbox)
    • vmcheck.dll (Virtual PC)
    • wpespy.dll (WPE Pro)
  • CPU
    • Hypervisor presence using (EAX=0x1)
    • Hypervisor vendor using (EAX=0x40000000)
      • «KVMKVMKVM\0\0\0» (KVM)
        • «Microsoft Hv»(Microsoft Hyper-V or Windows Virtual PC)
        • «VMwareVMware»(VMware)
        • «XenVMMXenVMM»(Xen)
        • «prl hyperv «( Parallels) -«VBoxVBoxVBox»( VirtualBox)

Anti-Analysis

  • Processes
    • OllyDBG / ImmunityDebugger / WinDbg / IDA Pro
    • SysInternals Suite Tools (Process Explorer / Process Monitor / Regmon / Filemon, TCPView, Autoruns)
    • Wireshark / Dumpcap
    • ProcessHacker / SysAnalyzer / HookExplorer / SysInspector
    • ImportREC / PETools / LordPE
    • JoeBox Sandbox

Macro malware attacks

  • Document_Close / Auto_Close.
  • Application.RecentFiles.Count

Code/DLL Injections techniques

  • CreateRemoteThread
  • SetWindowsHooksEx
  • NtCreateThreadEx
  • RtlCreateUserThread
  • APC (QueueUserAPC / NtQueueApcThread)
  • RunPE (GetThreadContext / SetThreadContext)

Contributors

References

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